Social protection has been implemented in Kenya for many years in various forms that include both non-contributory and contributory schemes. These schemes were given an impetus by the 2006 African Union meeting in Livingstone, Zambia, following which the Government of Kenya initiated a wide consultative process to formulate a national social protection framework. Through this process, the Government has identified several key social protection actions in the areas of social assistance, social security, and health insurance.
The Constitution of Kenya (2010) contains a comprehensive Bill of Rights. Article 43 guarantees all Kenyans their economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights. It asserts the "right for every person...to social security and binds the State to provide appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support themselves and their dependants." This right is closely linked to other social protection rights, including the right to healthcare, human dignity, reasonable working conditions, and access to justice. Article 21 establishes the progressive realization of social and economic rights and obligates the State to "observe, respect, protect, promote, and fulfil the rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights."